What is Choosing Wisely®?
The Choosing Wisely® campaign began as an initiative of the ABIM Foundation which encourages physicians, patients and other health care stakeholders to think and talk about medical tests and procedures that may be unnecessary and over used. The concept was originally conceived and piloted by the National Physicians Alliance which, through a series of ABIM Foundation grants, created a set of specific steps physicians in internal medicine, family medicine and pediatrics could take into their practices to promote more effective use of healthcare recourses. Expanding the project, numerous national medical specialty organizations were asked to “choose wisely” by identifying five tests, services or procedures commonly used in their field whose necessity that could be questions and discussed. The AAFP was among the first to participate and submitted its first list in April, 2012, followed by two more lists in 2013.
The following is the complete list of Choosing Wisely® recommendations specific to Family Medicine:
Released by the AAFP April 4, 2012:
1. Don’t do imaging for low back pain within the first six weeks, unless red flags are present.
Red flags include, but are not limited to, severe or progressive neurological deficits or when serious underlying conditions such as osteomyelitis are suspected. Imaging of the lower spine before six weeks does not improve outcomes, but does increase costs. Low back pain is the fifth most common reason for all physician visits.
2. Don’t routinely prescribe antibiotics for acute mild-to-moderate sinusitis unless symptoms last for seven or more days, or symptoms worsen after initial clinical improvement.
Symptoms must include discolored nasal secretions and facial or dental tenderness when touched. Most sinusitis in the ambulatory setting is due to a viral infection that will resolve on its own. Despite consistent recommendations to the contrary, antibiotics are prescribed in more than 80 percent of outpatient visits for acute sinusitis. Sinusitis accounts for 16 million office visits and $5.8 billion in annual health care costs.
3. Don’t use dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) screening for osteoporosis in women younger than 65 or men younger than 70 with no risk factors.
DEXA is not cost effective in younger, low-risk patients, but is cost effective in older patients.
4. Don’t order annual electrocardiograms (EKGs) or any other cardiac screening for low-risk patients without symptoms.
There is little evidence that detection of coronary artery stenosis in asymptomatic patients at low risk for coronary heart disease improves health outcomes. False-positive tests are likely to lead to harm through unnecessary invasive procedures, over-treatment and misdiagnosis. Potential harms of this routine annual screening exceed the potential benefit.
5. Don’t perform Pap smears on women younger than 21 or who have had a hysterectomy for non-cancer disease.
Most observed abnormalities in adolescents regress spontaneously, therefore Pap smears for this age group can lead to unnecessary anxiety, additional testing and cost. Pap smears are not helpful in women after hysterectomy (for non-cancer disease) and there is little evidence for improved outcomes.
Released by the AAFP February 21, 2013:
6. Don’t schedule elective, non-medically indicated inductions of labor or Cesarean deliveries before 39 weeks, 0 days gestational age.
Delivery prior to 39 weeks, 0 days has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of learning disabilities and a potential increase in morbidity and mortality. There are clear medical indications for delivery prior to 39 weeks and 0 days based on maternal and/or fetal conditions. A mature fetal lung test, in the absence of appropriate clinical criteria, is not an indication for delivery.
7. Avoid elective, non-medically indicated inductions of labor between 39 weeks, 0 days and 41 weeks, 0 days unless the cervix is deemed favorable.
Ideally, labor should start on its own initiative whenever possible. Higher Cesarean delivery rates result from inductions of labor when the cervix is unfavorable. Health care clinicians should discuss the risks and benefits with their patients before considering inductions of labor without medical indications.
8. Don’t screen for carotid artery stenosis (CAS) in asymptomatic adult patients.
There is good evidence that for adult patients with no symptoms of carotid artery stenosis, the harms of screening outweigh the benefits. Screening could lead to non-indicated surgeries that result in serious harms, including death, stroke and myocardial infarction.
9. Don’t screen women older than 65 years of age for cervical cancer who have had adequate prior screening and are not otherwise at high risk for cervical cancer.
There is adequate evidence that screening women older than 65 years of age for cervical cancer who have had adequate prior screening and are not otherwise at high risk provides little to no benefit.
10. Don’t screen women younger than 30 years of age for cervical cancer with HPV testing, alone or in combination with cytology.
There is adequate evidence that the harms of HPV testing, alone or in combination with cytology, in women younger than 30 years of age are moderate. The harms include more frequent testing and invasive diagnostic procedures such as colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Abnormal screening test results are also associated with psychological harms, anxiety and distress.
Released by the AAFP September 24, 2013:
11. Don’t prescribe antibiotics for otitis media in children aged 2–12 years with non-severe symptoms where the observation option is reasonable.
The “observation option” refers to deferring antibacterial treatment of selected children for 48 to 72 hours and limiting management to symptomatic relief. The decision to observe or treat is based on the child’s age, diagnostic certainty and illness severity. To observe a child without initial antibacterial therapy, it is important that the parent or caregiver has a ready means of communicating with the clinician. There also must be a system in place that permits reevaluation of the child.
12. Don’t perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) routinely in first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children aged 2–24 months.
The risks associated with radiation (plus the discomfort and expense of the procedure) outweigh the risk of delaying the detection of the few children with correctable genitourinary abnormalities until their second UTI.
13. Don’t routinely screen for prostate cancer using a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal exam.
There is convincing evidence that PSA-based screening leads to substantial over-diagnosis of prostate tumors. Many tumors will not harm patients, while the risks of treatment are significant. Physicians should not offer or order PSA screening unless they are prepared to engage in shared decision making that enables an informed choice by patients.
14. Don’t screen adolescents for scoliosis.
There is no good evidence that screening asymptomatic adolescents detects idiopathic scoliosis at an earlier stage than detection without screening. The potential harms of screening and treating adolescents include unnecessary follow-up visits and evaluations due to false positive test results and psychological adverse effects.
15. Don’t require a pelvic exam or other physical exam to prescribe oral contraceptive medications.
Hormonal contraceptives are safe, effective and well-tolerated for most women. Data do not support the necessity of performing a pelvic or breast examination to prescribe oral contraceptive medications. Hormonal contraception can be safely provided on the basis of medical history and blood pressure measurement.
To learn more about the Choosing Wisely® initiative, including clinical recommendations informing of “when you need them” – visit the section for Family Physicians on the Choosing Wisely® website or the Choosing Wisely® Initiative at AAFP.