Resources and Information
Information about Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) and AEDs
- Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) – Anyone Can Save a Life
- Facts about Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Youth – Parent Heart Watch
- Automated External Defibrillator (AED) – Parent Heart Watch
- “Drop the Dummy” Drill Instructions – Anyone Can Save a Life
- Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Policy – Anyone Can Save a Life
- 2013 Washington State House Bill 1556 “Creating initiatives in high schools to save lives in the event of cardiac arrest”
Potential Sources of Funding
- Parent-Teacher Association
- Athletic Booster Club
- Charity/service organizations, e.g., Kiwanis or Lions Club
- Local businesses
- Traditional fundraisers
- Funding For Your AED Program – National Center for Early Defibrillation
Preparing for and Managing SCA
- Planning for cardiac emergencies in the school setting
- Establish an emergency action plan for each venue.
- Identify anticipated first responders (e.g., teachers, administrators, coaches, athletic trainers, officials) and provide training in sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) recognition, cardiopulmonary
- resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AED) use.
- Develop an internal communication system and a means to activate the local emergency response system.
- Install AEDs in strategic locations and equip key staff with portable AEDs as needed for athletic events to ensure early access to defibrillation (within 3 min of collapse).
- Register AEDs with the local emergency medical system.
- Identify the person responsible for AED maintenance.
- Determine routes for emergency vehicles to easily access each athletic venue in case of a cardiac emergency.
- Practice and review the emergency action plan at least annually with all potential first responders.
- Coordinate onsite ambulances and other mobile responders for certain high-risk sporting events.
- Management of cardiac emergencies in the school setting
- Promptly recognize a cardiac emergency by maintaining a high level of suspicion.
- Assume SCA in any collapsed and unresponsive person.
- Avoid misdiagnosis as a result of agonal breathing and/or seizure-like activity.
- Elicit help from people nearby.
- Activate the local emergency response system.
- Begin chest compressions, retrieve an AED and apply it as soon as possible for defibrillation (if indicated).
- Continue CPR, AED use, and resuscitative efforts until the victim becomes responsive or care is transferred to an emergency facility capable of advanced cardiac life support.
- Promptly recognize a cardiac emergency by maintaining a high level of suspicion.
Adapted from: Toresdahl B, Courson R, Börjesson M, Sharma S, Drezner J. Emergency cardiac care in the athletic setting: from schools to the Olympics. Br J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;46 Suppl 1:i85-9. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091447.
Emergency Action Plan (EAP) Checklist
- Development of an Emergency Action Plan
- Establish a written EAP for each venue.
- Coordinate the EAP with the local EMS agency, campus public safety officials, onsite first responders, administrators, athletic trainers, school nurses, and team and consulting physicians.
- Integrate the EAP into the local EMS response.
- Determine the venue-specific access to early defibrillation (within 3 minutes from collapse to first shock recommended).
- Emergency Communication
- Establish an efficient communication system to activate EMS at each venue.
- Establish a communication system to alert on-site responders to the emergency and its location.
- Post the EAP at every venue and near telephones, including the role of the first responder, a listing of emergency numbers, and street address and directions to guide the EMS personnel.
- Emergency Personnel
- Designate an EAP coordinator.
- Identify who will be responsible and trained to respond to a SCA (likely first responders include athletic trainers, coaches, school nurses, and team physicians).
- Train targeted responders in CPR and AED use.
- Determine who is responsible for personnel training and establish a means of documentation.
- Identify the medical coordinator for on-site AED programs.
- Emergency Equipment
- Use on-site or centrally located AED(s) if the collapse-to-shock time interval for conventional EMS is estimated to be > 3 minutes.
- Notify EMS dispatch centers and agencies of the specific type of AED and the exact location of the AED on school grounds.
- Acquire pocket mask or barrier-shield device for rescue breathing.
- Acquire AED supplies: scissors, razor, and towel, and consider an extra set of AED pads.
- Determine who is responsible for checking equipment readiness and how often and establish a means of documentation.
- Emergency Transportation
- Determine transportation route for ambulances to enter and exit each venue.
- Facilitate access to SCA victim for arriving EMS personnel.
- Consider on-site ambulance coverage for high-risk sporting events.
- Identify the receiving medical facility equipped in advanced cardiac care.
- Ensure that medical coverage is still provided at the athletic event if on-site medical staff accompany the athlete to the hospital.
- Practice and Review of Emergency Action Plan
- Rehearse the EAP at least annually with all anticipated first responders.
- Consider mock SCA scenarios.
- Establish an evaluation system for the EAP rehearsal, and modify the EAP if needed.
- Post Event Catastrophic Incident Guidelines
- Establish a contact list of individuals to be notified in case of a catastrophic event.
- Determine the procedures for release of information, aftercare services, and the postevent evaluation process.
- Identify local crisis services and counselors.
- Consider preestablished incident report forms to be completed by all responders and the method for system improvement.
Adapted from: Drezner JA, Courson RW, Roberts WO, Mosesso VN Jr, Link MS, Maron BJ; Inter Association Task Force. Inter Association Task Force recommendations on emergency preparedness and management of sudden cardiac arrest in high school and college athletic programs: a consensus statement. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3):253-71.
- Caffrey SL, Willoughby PJ, Pepe PE, Becker LB. Public use of automated external defibrillators. N Engl J Med. Oct 2002;347(16):1242-1247.
- Corrado D, Basso C, Rizzoli G, Schiavon M, Thiene G. Does sports activity enhance the risk of sudden death in adolescents and young adults? J Am Coll Cardiol. Dec 2003;42(11):1959-1963.
- Drezner JA, Courson RW, Roberts WO, Mosesso VN Jr, Link MS, Maron BJ; Inter Association Task Force. Inter Association Task Force recommendations on emergency preparedness and management of sudden cardiac arrest in high school and college athletic programs: a consensus statement. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3):253-71.
- Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, et al. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics–2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. Jan 2013;127(1):143-152.
- Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP, Weisfeldt M, et al. Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. Aug 2004;351(7):637-646.
- Maron BJ. Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J Med. Sep 2003;349(11):1064-1075.
- Thompson PD, Franklin BA, Balady GJ, et al. Exercise and acute cardiovascular events placing the risks into perspective: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. May 2007;115(17):2358-2368.
- Toresdahl B, Courson R, Börjesson M, Sharma S, Drezner J. Emergency cardiac care in the athletic setting: from schools to the Olympics. Br J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;46 Suppl 1:i85-9. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091447.
- Toresdahl BG, Drezner JD, Rao AL, Harmon KG. Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in High School Students and Student-Athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2013;23(2):125-126.
- Toresdahl BG, Drezner JD, Rao AL, Harmon KG. Outcomes of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in U.S. High Schools: A Prospective Study from the National Registry for AED Use in Sports. Clin J Sport Med. 2011;21(2):137.
- Valenzuela TD, Roe DJ, Nichol G, Clark LL, Spaite DW, Hardman RG. Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos. N Engl J Med. Oct 2000;343(17):1206-1209.